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The Chemical Abstracts Service registry number is a unique identifier of a particular chemical, designed to prevent confusion arising from different languages and naming systems. High = substitution not possible or very difficult. The temperature at which the solid–liquid phase change occurs. Indium atoms have 49 electrons and the shell structure is

The first column of this periodic table has a single electron in the outer s-orbital: H 1s1, Li 2s1, Na 3s1 , K 4s1. If coated onto aircraft or automotive windshields, it allows the glass to be electrically deiced or demisted as well as reducing the air conditioning requirement by reducing heat gain.

technology and price). [44], Different estimates exist of the amounts of indium contained within the ores of other metals.

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Bizarrely, the pure metal of indium is described as giving a high-pitched "cry" when bent. Data for this section been provided by the.

[65] Indium is used in photovoltaics as the semiconductor copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS), also called CIGS solar cells, a type of second-generation thin-film solar cell.

This database focuses on the most common chemical compounds used in the home and industry. An indium alloy has been used for fire-sprinkler systems in shops and warehouses because of its low melting point. Printed from, Molar Mass Calculations and Javascript Calculator, Nitrogen Dioxide, Ozone & Lead Partner to Increase Pollution Dangers to Urban Children, Nanotech-cleantech: bridging the gap to real sustainability, ADA Recommendation for Fluoride in Infant Diets, Asbestos, a Brief History its Uses & Health Risks, Asbestos, its Chemical & Physical Properties, Asbestos: A Manufacturing Health Hazard Dating to Prehistoric Times. Tin (Sn) has an atomic mass of 50.

This is because it conducts electricity, bonds strongly to glass and is transparent. Other compounds of indium used in solar cells include indium gallium arsenide and copper indium gallium selenide.
[28] Several other compounds are known to combine indium(I) and indium(III), such as InI6(InIIICl6)Cl3,[29] InI5(InIIIBr4)2(InIIIBr6),[30] InIInIIIBr4.

Because that blue line did not match any known element, they hypothesized a new element was present in the minerals. The number of protons in an atom. It is given by the ratio of the pressure on a body to the fractional decrease in volume.

[58], In 1924, indium was found to have a valued property of stabilizing non-ferrous metals, and that became the first significant use for the element. Many of them slowly decompose in moist air, necessitating careful storage of semiconductor compounds to prevent contact with the atmosphere. However it does have a size effect in bending and indentation, associated to a length-scale of order 50–100 µm,[13] significantly large when compared with other metals. The average indium price in 2016 was US$240/kg, down from US$705/kg in 2014.[56]. High = substitution not possible or very difficult. Until the early 1960s it was believed that three bonds between any two atoms was as high as Nature could go, as in the case of the nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond for example. The outermost electrons are so important that we give them a name: valence electrons. For example, when used as a washer between a silicon diode or other temperature sensors and refrigerator cold stages, indium foil increases the thermal contact area and prevents the sensor from detaching due to vibration.
[12] Indium displays a ductile viscoplastic response, found to be size-independent in tension and compression.

A higher recycling rate may reduce risk to supply. Accessed on-line: 11/2/2020

This Site has been carefully prepared for your visit, and we ask you to honour and agree to the following terms and conditions when using this Site. Reinhardt, J. For more information contact us at or check out our status page at This is an aspect that is often forgotten in the current debate, e.g. %PDF-1.5 [38], Indium is created by the long-lasting (up to thousands of years) s-process (slow neutron capture) in low-to-medium-mass stars (range in mass between 0.6 and 10 solar masses). Density (g cm−3) For example, instead of Sc : 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d1 it would be abbreviated as [Ar]4s23d1 or [Ar]3d14s2.

Today around 480 tonnes are produced annually from mining and a further 650 tonnes annually from recycling. [70], Indium's high neutron-capture cross-section for thermal neutrons makes it suitable for use in control rods for nuclear reactors, typically in an alloy of 80% silver, 15% indium, and 5% cadmium. [40] Reich and Richter later fell out when the latter claimed to be the sole discoverer. Any element can be abbreviated except H and He, by using the noble gas with fewer electrons than the element.

The percentage of the world reserves located in the country with the largest reserves. Indium is a silvery-white, highly ductile post-transition metal with a bright luster. WebElements: THE periodic table on the WWW [] It is defined as the equilibrium pressure exerted by the gas produced above a substance in a closed system. Bizarrely, the pure metal of indium is described as …

Indium has a melting point higher than sodium and gallium, but lower than lithium and tin.

The compounds are Lewis acids, somewhat akin to the better known aluminium trihalides. As the name indicates these materials, when applied as a thin coating onto glass or plastic films, are both transparent to visible light as well as electrically conductive. [61], Indium has many semiconductor-related applications. Copyright 1995 - 2020 Kenneth L Barbalace (.

Finally, you can still count the number of electrons to determine the element, you just start with the number of electrons in the noble gas. ���~!�����0 ��^��c����A�p�T�'[�V��v�-`���� N�z�bmE'�5NU8��.�[K��?��;\R�n��h�%fvJI%.����@�������=ZE�e�8 [62] Indium tin oxide is used as a light filter in low-pressure sodium-vapor lamps. [15] While the energy required to include the s-electrons in chemical bonding is lowest for indium among the group 13 metals, bond energies decrease down the group so that by indium, the energy released in forming two additional bonds and attaining the +3 state is not always enough to outweigh the energy needed to involve the 5s-electrons.

Specific heat capacity is the amount of energy needed to change the temperature of a kilogram of a substance by 1 K. A measure of the stiffness of a substance. Reich, who was color-blind, employed Richter as an assistant for detecting the colored spectral lines. [7] It is so soft (Mohs hardness 1.2) that like sodium, it can be cut with a knife. The images may not be posted on any website, shared in any disc library, image storage mechanism, network system or similar arrangement.

Copyright 1993-2020 Mark Winter [ The University of Sheffield and WebElements Ltd, UK]. The primary consumption of indium worldwide is LCD production.

It very rarely forms its own minerals, or occurs in elemental form. It has been found uncombined in nature, but typically it is found associated with zinc minerals and iron, lead and copper ores. Can Prairie Dogs be Managed Utilizing Reconciliation Ecology?

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